The aim of 'Reshaping the Future' is to draw international attention to the key role that education can play in both preventing conflict and in reconstructing post-conflict societies. The author also hopes to alert developing countries and donors alike to the devastating consequences of conflict on a country's education systems and outcomes, as well to emphasize the importance of maximizing the opportunities to reform education systems presented by a reconstruction setting, adopting a long-term development perspective, and emphasizing equity and quality in the delivery of education services.
Every education system has the potential to exacerbate the conditions that contribute to violent conflict. Based on this notion, the author argues that education warrants high priority in both humanitarian response and post-conflict reconstruction. The central message of this book is that education plays key role in both conflict prevention and in the reconstruction of post-conflict societies.
It highlights significant findings on education and post-conflict reconstruction drawn from thorough research and literature review, a survey and database of key indicators for 52 conflict-affected countries, and a review of 12 country studies. Convert currency. Add to Basket. Book Description World Bank, Condition: New. More information about this seller Contact this seller.
Condition: Brand New. In Stock. Seller Inventory Book Description World Bank Publications, Never used!. Seller Inventory P Book Description World Bank Publications. The fragmented and selective memory, with all its hidden and ignored stories, left niches for 'subversive' memories, which, under the circumstances of political disintegration and economic and social crisis, were vulnerable to manipulation.
The French philosopher Paul Ricoeur has written extensively on what he called "hindered memory", "manipulated memory" and "obliged memory". For example, in the immediate aftermath of the conflict, actors may often disagree about the need to teach history.
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They see a danger in teaching about the past and in the likely manipulation of the 'truth. Whereas it may seem critical by many individuals to remember the past which, among other aspects, is important to forge identities, facilitate reconciliation, and allow communities to heal, others may be uncomfortable with a focus on 'negative' representations of the past. In some communities, "there may be a strong desire to forget or move on versus an impulse to remember and document.
Should the former be true, it is important for outsiders to honor that sentiment and not push memorialisation on a community.
What is true for individuals is also valid for communities and societies. This does not mean that very valuable and helpful contributions cannot be provided even though the political context is not favorable. But this must be carefully assessed in order to design programs that have the best chance to succeed and positively contribute to peacebuilding even in the most inauspicious circumstances. Memorials Timing is a key factor that determines outcome and impact as it can bring parties in a conflict together or further alienate them.
Indeed, the forms that memorials take often reflect the time that they were initiated and the people who built them. Larger, formal memorials by states generally do not appear until at least five to ten years have passed.
But it takes a long time for national memorials to be built as "survivors often feel that other needs should take priority - caring for victims; rebuilding political, judicial, and economic institutions; reestablishing the rule of law; and engaging in truth-telling and legal accountability processes. Here also, a sense of sequencing seems possible: "Secondary-school history education revision would seem to fit into, complement, or deepen certain reconciliatory processes and stages Changes in history textbooks and curricula would function as a kind of secondary phase, which reflect and embody the states commitment to institutionalizing earlier processes such as truth and historical commissions and official gestures and processes of acknowledgment, apology, and repair.
A similar time lag usually exists between the work of academic historians and the development of secondary-school history texts based on their scholarship. The first meetings between French and German historians in the form of historical commissions took place in Entitled Histoire-Geschichte: Europe and the World After , the textbook covers the period since , but addresses such controversial topics as the Vichy regime in France and Hitler's popularity in Germany.
The book was written by 10 historians, five from each country, and is being used in secondary schools in both countries.
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The main lesson of this example is that reforming history education takes a very long time even under the most favorable circumstances. Furthermore, official reform projects carried out either between states or within a state frequently adhere to a hierarchy of implementation measures: from curriculum to textbooks to teacher training.
Such a long process can cause the reform to be diluted and prevent practical teaching from ever being brought into line with the curriculum or vice versa.
Reshaping the future : education and postconflict reconstruction.
For instance, a study by the World Bank suggests several starting points while emphasizing that "there is no golden rule regarding the question of sequencing in post-conflict reconstruction" : "First, focus on the basics to get the system functioning so that the return of children and youth to school can be seen as an early 'peace dividend' that will help to shore up support for peace. Second, acknowledge the importance of symbolism in education and provide bold symbolic actions such as purging textbooks that signal that the reform of the system has started.
Third, build recognition that reform of education is a long-term, incremental, and ongoing process that takes decades and that must be led from within the country as consensus develops on the wider development vision of that society. Fourth, focus from the beginning on building reform capacity, which includes supporting the participation of communities, local authorities, and other stakeholders in the educational reform dialogue. This can be initiated in early phases when there is a general anxiety about reform of the system, but not the political coherence, administrative capacity, civil society commitment, or financial and institutional resources required to implement systemic reform.
Memorials will be vandalized or ignored if there is no local ownership and owners don't identify with memorialization efforts and don't pay attention to them.
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International actors need to seek involvement with local partners, bring in local media to inform and raise awareness in the community, organize workshop with survivors, dialogue with Truth and Reconciliation Commission representatives. Widespread consultation and assessment of options are also important before taking any decision. In this kind of program, process may be as important as outcomes.
While locals may recognize that they have been consulted, if they do not identify with the memorialization effort, i. Community will be less likely to take care of it if they think it's a government project, not something for them or what they need and can relate to. As indicated, memorials can become a source of division, especially if survivors feel that they were not consulted.
Consultations: Consultations are therefore a key for success. Diverse audiences also need to be considered e. The results of feasibility studies should be widely available to government officials, community stakeholders, local and international NGOs. Those findings help set major goals and desired outcomes. Such approaches result in a lack of local ownership of the initiative as well as potentially undermining peace building and reconciliation efforts. One should make sure that alternative perspectives and narratives and not just an NGO's own agenda are heard.
If the rules of the game are clearly set and presented, expectations can be properly managed. Therefore, many practitioners maintain that it is necessary to link developmental issues and survival needs with memorialization. Tourism and even what is called "genocide tourism" and the commercialization of memorial sites may help in that respect but they can also have negative effects on society. In too many cases, money designated for the museum or the commercial benefits do not benefit the community. For example, if a memorial is located in the capital city, people will not necessarily travel there.
Even if community members contribute significantly to a memorial, if it is not located in a place where they would visit, the site becomes meaningless to them. For instance, in South Africa, the District Six Museum is frequented by many visitors but not by members of the community. Many in the community note that the museum has substantial funds but does not invest in the very needs of the community there.
The process of design: "The process of determining what shape a memorial project should take and how memorial space should be used is essential-- more important, ultimately, than the physical edifice itself. Moreover, the process remains essential even after a memorial is built. Some locals want a fancier construction for a memorial or museum but if construction is too fancy or foreign, locals may not be able to identify with the site.
Outsiders can make a lot of mistakes here as to determination of what people want it to look like.
Memorial programs as a dynamic process Process remains essential even after a memorial is constructed. While this may imply physical changes to the memorial itself, it could also be undertaken through programming and outreach programmes that are more flexible in adapting to evolving societal needs. They are also more likely to retain meaning for rising generations than static memorials of long-past conflicts and heroes that fail to interpret their meaning in ways that have contemporary relevance.
It can be highly problematic in the following two respects. Genocide tourists' perceptions of the countries and regions they visit are often distorted since their interests are extremely limited. Local actors may lack access to funding for in-country training on different aspects of memorialization, including in collection and preservation of documents, artifacts, and sites. Support to coordinate and consult regularly with stakeholders involved in transitional justice mechanisms and education and education reform initiatives may also be required.
Last but not least, support to establish relationships and exchanges with counterparts in other countries who have addressed similar issues, and share technical information, best practices, challenges and strategies is of great benefit. Training of international staff Few international actors - international mission staff and peacekeepers, humanitarian aid workers, foreign NGOs, international organizations, and others - involved in postwar reconstruction are prepared to deal with memorialization.
International actors must recognize sites and other resources such as document collections of cultural, historical, or symbolic significance, clarify how they can protect these resources in an effort to promote social reconstruction, and understand the importance of memorialization in societies emerging from conflict. Evaluation Evaluation in post-conflict settings is necessary at all stages of a memorialization process to respond to evolving socio-political needs of still very fragile societies.